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    - French
    - Spanish

• Interdisciplinary Minors in
    French or Spanish

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Experiencing language
   beyond the classroom
    - French
    - Spanish

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    - Chinese
    - French
    - German
    - Spanish

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   doing?

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    - Chinese
    - French
    - German
    - Spanish

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Courses

Chinese

CHI 101
Elementary Chinese I

Elementary Chinese I is designed for beginners of Chinese. In this course, students will become familiar with Chinese-speaking cultures, as well as develop basic language skills in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing in Chinese. Since input in Chinese is vital for the acquisition of these skills, the class will be conducted in Chinese, except for clarification of grammar and culture. In addition, many in-class activities will be done in groups and pairs.

CHI 102
Elementary Chinese II

Continuation of 101.   Prerequisite: CHI 101 or two years of secondary Chinese or permission of the department.

CHI 201
Intermediate Chinese I

Intermediate Chinese I is a continuation of Elementary Chinese II. In this course, students will become familiar with Chinese-speaking cultures, as well as develop basic language skills in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing in Chinese. Since input in Chinese is vital for the acquisition of these skills, the class will be conducted in Chinese, except for clarification of grammar and culture. In addition, many in-class activities will be done in groups and pairs.  Prerequisite: CHI 102 or two years of secondary Chinese or permission of the department

CHI 202
Intermediate Chinese II

Continuation of 201.   Prerequisite: CHI 201.

CHI 221
Chinese Culture in a Global Context

This course is designed to provide students the opportunity to engage with many aspects of Chinese culture.  Students will study Chinese customs and become familiar with the cultural significance of such practices as Chinese calligraphy, taiji, Chinese cooking, paper-cutting and Chinese opera singing.  They will explore certain historical periods, philosophical movements and works of art.  They will also examine difference as it manifests itself within China’s borders and pertains to China’s relations with other countries and its place in the world.   GENERAL STUDIES CONNECTIONS-GLOBAL-HUMANITIES


French

For a major in French, a total of 10 courses must be taken. At least eight courses must be at the 300- or 400-level. For the two remaining courses, students may take 202, the practicum (intensive conversation) or related courses approved by the department. All French majors and combined majors are required to schedule 301, 302, and either 491 or 492. Please see above for special requirements for secondary education students.

FRE 101
Elementary French I

This course is designed for those who have never studied or who have had only minimal exposure to French. It covers basic grammatical concepts and vocabulary related to daily life and limited aspects of the cultures of the French-speaking world, and emphasizes the development of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. Students who successfully complete this course are able to speak and write in very simple ways about familiar and immediate topics and understand the gist of written and spoken French materials on familiar topics. Conducted in French, except for clarification of grammar and culture. Four class meetings per week.

FRE 102
Elementary French II

Continuation of FRE 101. This course expands the students' ability to understand and produce written and spoken French. It emphasizes accuracy in pronunciation and familiar grammatical constructions and acquisition of new structures that enable students to handle more complex tasks. French 102 emphasizes the development of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills, and continues the exploration of cultures of the French-speaking world through a variety of materials. Conducted in French, except for clarification of grammar and culture. Four class meetings per week.
Prerequisite: FRE 101

FRE 201
Intermediate French I

This course refines the skills that students acquired in elementary French by developing precision and nuance in topics and grammar previously studied. It enhances the students' ability to handle communicative tasks necessary for survival in the target culture. Students gain a more acute awareness of cultures of the French-speaking world through the study of a variety of authentic texts, including literary fragments, journalistic pieces, film and other media. French 201 emphasizes the development of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. Conducted in French, except for clarification of grammar and culture. Four class meetings per week.
Prerequisite: French 102, three or four years of high school French, or permission of instructor

FRE 202
Intermediate French II

Continuation of FRE 201. This course explores more complex communicative strategies, grammar and vocabulary necessary for advanced study of the language. It focuses on such tasks as narrating in all tenses, advising/persuading and giving a supported opinion. It continues in-depth analysis of the cultures of the French-speaking world through a variety of materials and emphasizes the development of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. Conducted in French, except for clarification of grammar and culture. Four class meetings per week.
Prerequisite: FRE 201

FRE 221
French Literature in Translation
This is a one-semester course based on French masterpieces of a given age or style, to be read in English translation. This course meets the general studies requirement in literature. (European Studies)

FRE 301
Advanced French I

This course provides an extensive review of basic language skills studied in lower-level language courses. It also explores language and culture in more sophisticated contexts. Students integrate language skills through extensive written and oral practice. Students analyze a variety of cultural and literary texts in order to have a more critical understanding of French-speaking cultures. Conducted in French. Four class meetings per week.
Prerequisite: FRE 202, four years of high school French, or permission of instructor

FRE 302
Advanced French II

Continuation of FRE 301 with more extensive writing and reading assignments, including a literary work by a prominent French-language author. It focuses on solidifying critical thinking skills necessary for advanced language courses as well as courses in other disciplines. Conducted in French. Four class meetings per week.
Prerequisite: FRE 301

FRE 305
Practicum in Conversational French
This intensive conversation experience emphasizes speaking and listening to develop high intermediate/advanced proficiency in French. Extensive use of multimedia programs, small group discussions and collaborative projects.
Prerequisite: Successful completion of FRE 301 or permission of instructor

FRE 321
French Culture and Civilization: From the Middle Ages Through the Revolution 
This course provides a historical survey of the highlights of French culture and civilization from the Middle Ages through the French Revolution. It examines events, social structures, political institutions, the educational system, everyday life, art and architecture. These are presented, aside from the basic textbook, through excerpts from original writings from each period, contemporary interpretations, slides and movies. (European Studies)  
Prerequisite: FRE 302 or permission of instructor

FRE 322
Modern France: 19th and 20th Centuries
This course examines the highlights of French culture and civilization of the 19th and 20th centuries. It presents, through literary selections, contemporary interpretations, slides and movies, a diverse perspective on the people and events that have shaped the character of France and the Francophone world. (European Studies) 
Prerequisite: FRE 302 or permission of instructor

FRE 323
French Culture through the Mass Media
This advanced language and culture course focuses on exploring French culture from World War II to the present through the mass media.  Through a variety of mass media "texts," including television, film, newspapers, magazines, the Internet and music, students will examine cultural phenomena influencing France today. Topics will include immigration, education, Franco-American relations, daily life, women's issues, the economy, and the media themselves as cutural products and cultural producers. All work is in French (European Studies) 
Prerequisite: FRE 301 or permission of instructor

FRE 330
French Drama

This is a discussion of theatre as a literary genre and a study of the development of drama in France and French-speaking countries. Particular emphasis is on plays in the 17th and the 20th centuries. Writers such as Corneille, Racine, Molière, Hugo, Anouilh, Giraudoux, Sartre, Dadier, Hébert, Duras, Beckett and Ionesco are studied. (European Studies)
Prerequisite: FRE 302 or permission of instructor

FRE 335
French-Speaking World through Film
This advanced language and culture course focuses on exploring French-speaking cultures through film.  Students examine how exemplary films both reflect and inflect a variety of political issues, historical events, social changes, and cultural movements of the French-speaking world.   Each section of the course provides students the opportunity to focus on and to understand a specific geographic, historical, or thematic dimension of the French-speaking world.  All work is in French. May be repeated with a new topic.
Prerequisite: FRE 301 or permission of instructor

FRE 340
French Fiction

This is a study of the development of the novel form in France and in other French-speaking countries from the 17th to the 20th centuries. (European Studies)
Prerequisite: FRE 302 or permission of instructor

FRE 342
Francophone Cultures and Literatures

This course introduces students to important issues facing the Francophone world. Topics such as colonization, decolonization, postcolonialism, separatism in Quebec and the French legacy in Africa and the Caribbean are examined through the use of literary texts, political and cultural discourse, music and films.
Prerequisite: FRE 302 or permission of instructor

FRE 350
French Poetry

This course studies poetic forms in French literature and of various methods of interpreting poetry. The course deals with selected major poets and poetic movements as well as some traditional and contemporary French songs. (European Studies)
Prerequisite: FRE 302 or permission of instructor

FRE 360
The History of Ideas

This course deals with fiction, essays and letters from the Renaissance through the 20th century whose focus is primarily the communication of ideas. Writers studied include Rabelais, Montaigne, Madame de Sévigné, Pascal, Voltaire, Rousseau, Diderot, Madame de Stael, Sartre, Camus, Wittig, Irigaray, Cixous, Kristeva, Derrida and Foucault. (European Studies)
Prerequisite: FRE 302 or permission of instructor

FRE 371
Applied Linguistics

This course provides theoretical background in linguistics and in second language acquisition. The application of linguistic theory to foreign language teaching, with a focus on proficiency-based methodologies, is emphasized. Required of teacher certification candidates in modern foreign languages; open to other students with permission of the instructor. (Not for French concentration)

FRE 375
French Culture and Civilization

This Interim course introduces students to the people and lands of the French-speaking island of Martinique through an intensive and structured visit to the island. After reading and assessing a series of preparatory articles on their own, students travel to Martinique in early January with accompanying faculty to complete a series if activities that will enlighten them to many aspects of Martinique life. These undertakings include lectures at the university, field trips to various parts of the island and a variety of directed events, which encourage students to participate in many facets of Martinique culture. Students electing to receive French credit complete all coursework in French.
Prerequisite: FRE 302 or permission of instructor

FRE 380
Special Topics in French and Francophone Literature and Culture

This course offers special topics of interest in French and Francophone literature and culture. Readings, discussions, reports and examinations are all in French.
Prerequisite: FRE 302 or permission of instructor

FRE 492
Seminar II

This course includes a discussion of anthropological views of culture as well as a study of French social structures and socialization of children. Topics such as French attitudes toward time, geography and human nature also are studied. Literary texts, essays and video materials are used. (European Studies)
Prerequisite: Seniors only or permission of department chair


German

GER 101
Elementary German I

The sequence presents the necessary vocabulary and grammar for speaking, understanding and reading elementary German. The course is conducted in German with brief English explanations where needed. The course includes four hours of instruction per week.

GER 102
Elementary German II

Continuation of 101. The course includes four hours of instruction per week.  Prerequisite: GER 101

GER 201
Intermediate German I

This sequence, a continuation of “Elementary German,” includes more emphasis on reading German, and German culture and political life. The course includes  four hours of instruction per week. It is given in German with brief explanations in English as needed. Prerequisite: GER 102 or two years of secondary German or permission of instructor

GER 202
Intermediate German II

Continuation of German 201 with added emphasis on German culture and civilization. Four one-hour class meetings per week. Prerequisite: GER 201

GER 221
Literature in Translation

This course is a study of German short prose pieces centered on a cultural topic. The format of the course also includes the visual arts and film studies. Readings and discussions are in English. Topics have included: the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich, German romanticism in literature and philosophy, and the literary giants—Thomas Mann and Franz Kafka. This course satisfies the general studies humanities requirement. (European Studies)

GER 301
Advanced German I

This course provides an extensive review of basic language skills studied in lower-level language courses. It also explores language and culture in more sophisticated contexts. Students integrate language skills through extensive written and oral practice. Students analyze a variety of cultural and literary texts in order to have a more critical understanding of German-speaking cultures. Conducted in German. Four one-hour class meetings per week.
Prerequisite: GER 202, four years of high school German, or permission of instructor


Spanish

For a major in Spanish, a total of 10 courses must be taken. At least eight courses must be taken at the 300- or 400-level. For the two remaining required courses, students may take 202 or 204, the practicum (305), or related courses approved by the department. All majors and combined majors must schedule 301, 302 and either 491 or 492. Please see above for special requirements for education students.

SPA 101
Elementary Spanish I

This course is designed for those who have never studied or who have had only minimal exposure to Spanish. It covers basic grammatical concepts and vocabulary related to daily life and limited aspects of the cultures of the Spanish-speaking world, and emphasizes the development of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. Students who successfully complete this course are able to speak and write in very simple ways about familiar and immediate topics and understand the gist of written and spoken Spanish materials on familiar topics. Conducted in Spanish, except for clarification of grammar and culture. Four class meetings per week.

SPA 102
Elementary Spanish II

Continuation of SPA 101. This course expands the students' ability to understand and produce written and spoken Spanish. It emphasizes accuracy in pronunciation and familiar grammatical constructions and acquisition of new structures that enable students to handle more complex tasks. Spanish 102 emphasizes the development of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills, and continues the exploration of cultures of the Spanish-speaking world through a variety of materials. Conducted in Spanish, except for clarification of grammar and culture. Four class meetings per week. Prerequisite: SPA 101

SPA 201
Intermediate Spanish I

This course refines the skills that students acquired in elementary Spanish by developing precision and nuance in topics and grammar previously studied. It enhances the students' ability to handle communicative tasks necessary for survival in the target culture. Students gain a more acute awareness of cultures of the Spanish-speaking world through the study of a variety of authentic texts, including literary fragments, journalistic pieces, film and other media. Spanish 201 emphasizes the development of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. Conducted in Spanish, except for clarification of grammar and culture. Four class meetings per week.
Prerequisite: Spanish 102, three or four years of high school Spanish, or permission of instructor

SPA 202
Intermediate Spanish II

Continuation of SPA 201 or SPA 203. This course explores more complex communicative strategies, grammar, and vocabulary necessary for advanced study of the language. It focuses on such tasks as narrating in all tenses, advising/persuading and giving a supported opinion. It continues in-depth analysis of the cultures of the Spanish-speaking world through a variety of materials and emphasizes the development of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. Conducted in Spanish, except for clarification of grammar and culture. Four class meetings per week.
Prerequisite: SPA 201 or SPA 203

SPA 203
Accelerated Intermediate Spanish I

This course is the same as SPA 201 but is limited to 15 students who are considering a co-concentration in Spanish. The smaller class size permits more individual practice of all four skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking), and more attention is paid to cultural concepts and certain grammatical structures.

SPA 204
Accelerated Intermediate Spanish II

Continuation of SPA 201 or SPA 203. This course is the same as SPA 202 but with the addition of a 30-hour service learning component. Students work with agencies that serve the Spanish-speaking population of Reading and of Berks County. The placements vary year to year and are assigned based on community needs and each student's interest. Conducted in Spanish, except for clarification of grammar and culture. Four class meetings per week.
Prerequisite: SPA 201 or SPA 203

SPA 221
Special Topics in Spanish and Latin American Literature and Culture in English

This course is designed to offer special topics of interest in Spanish and Latin American literature and culture. Readings, discussions, reports and examinations will be in English. GENERAL STUDIES CONNECTIONS-GLOBAL-HUMANITIES

SPA 301
Advanced Spanish I

This course provides an extensive review of basic language skills studied in lower-level language courses. It also explores language and culture in more sophisticated contexts. Students integrate language skills through extensive written and oral practice. Students analyze a variety of cultural and literary texts in order to have a more critical understanding of Spanish-speaking cultures. Conducted in Spanish. Four class meetings per week.
Prerequisite: SPA 202/204, four years of high school Spanish, or permission of instructor

SPA 302
Advanced Spanish II

Continuation of SPA 301 with more extensive writing and reading assignments, including a literary work by a prominent Spanish-language author. It focuses on solidifying critical thinking skills necessary for advanced language courses as well as courses in other disciplines. Conducted in Spanish. Four class meetings per week.
Prerequisite: SPA 301

SPA 305
Practicum in Conversational Spanish

This intensive conversation experience emphasizes speaking and listening comprehension in the foreign language. There is extensive use of pair and small group activities as well as collaborative projects and presentations in the target language. A multimedia approach to the course increases the student's ability in all areas of language comprehension and production. Students will also read and write extensively.
Prerequisite: SPA 202/204, 302 or permission of instructor

SPA 308
Hispanics in the United States

This course covers the social, historical, political, and economic reasons for migration to the United States in recent times as well as the development of older Hispanic communities such as those in the southwest, midwest and northeast. The course includes readings of Chicano, Puerto Rican and Cuban literature. Oral histories of local Latino residents are conducted and presented by students. All readings and discussions are in Spanish. (Latin American Studies)
Prerequisite: SPA 302 or permission of instructor

SPA 315
Survey of Peninsular Literature

This is a study of selected prose from various periods of Spanish literature, with particular emphasis on modern and contemporary periods. Short stories and novels are included, as well as essays reflecting the philosophical perspective of the Spanish intellectual. (European Studies) Prerequisite: SPA 302 or permission of instructor

SPA 316
Survey of Latin American Literature

This is a survey of Spanish American fiction and essays from their beginnings to the contemporary period. (Latin American Studies) Prerequisite: SPA 302 or permission of instructor

SPA 318
Peninsular Spanish Civilization and Culture

An overview of Spanish history, society and the arts, from the time of the Romans and Visigoths to Franco and Post-Franco Spain. Readings, reports and examinations are in Spanish. (European Studies) Prerequisite: SPA 302 or permission of instructor

SPA 319
Latin American Civilization and Culture

An overview of the intellectual, artistic and socio-political achievements of peoples in Latin America. Readings, discussions, reports and examinations are in Spanish. (Latin American Studies).
Prerequisite: SPA 302 or permission of instructor

SPA 320
Mexican Culture and Civilization

This course explores Mexican history, culture and civilization through a variety of media such as literature, film, historical texts, newspapers and periodicals. The intent is for the student to gain an appreciation of Mexican history and culture as well as a Mexican perspective of its own history and culture. The course lectures and readings are in Spanish and all course requirements such as exams, reports, projects, oral presentations, etc. are in Spanish. Satisfies Spanish concentration requirement.
Prerequisite: SPA 302 or permission of instructor

SPA 321
Contemporary Culture in the Southern Cone

The countries of the Southern Cone of South America, which include Chile, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay share many characteristics: they are all located geographically in the southern-most part of the western hemisphere; they have been somewhat removed from contemporary global balance-of-power rivalries; for the most part they have fairly homogenous societies (Paraguay is the one exception to this); they generally have more developed economies; and they have all experienced harsh dictatorships followed by democratic transitions. These countries also have features which distinguish them as well. This course explores the many aspects of contemporary life and culture in these Southern Cone countries with the intent to introduce students to a part of Latin America that often gets overlooked. Readings and lectures are conducted in Spanish. Satisfies Spanish concentration requirement.
Prerequisite: SPA 302 or permission of instructor

SPA 322
The Andean World

This course focuses on the Andean nations: Columbia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. Topics include the geographic setting of desert highlands and jungle; the Inca culture and its legacy; Inca and Spanish cultures in contact; social problems and social protest; transitions from dictatorship to democracy; writers and artists from the pre-Columbian era to the present who reflect the Andean experience. Readings and lectures are in Spanish. Satisfies Spanish concentration requirement.
Prerequisite: SPA 302 or permission of instructor

SPA 323
Central America through the Mass Media

This course is an advanced language, culture and literature course that will focus on Central America and its portrayal through the media (television, newspapers, magazines, movies, documentaries, music and literature) both from within the region and without.  Particular focus will be on the 20th century as well as the  current state of each country.  The political, social, economic, and historical aspects of specific current issues (migration/immigration, liberation theology, indigenous movements, etc) will be explored as they relate to Central America. Readings and lectures are in Spanish. Satisfies Spanish concentration requirement.
Prerequisite: SPA 302 or permission of instructor

SPA 325
Caribbean Cultures and Literatures

This course focuses on the historical, political, social and cultural developments of the three Spanish-speaking countries in the Caribbean: Cuba, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico. Literary texts, political essays, historical documents, films and music in Spanish are used to discuss important cultural aspects that these Caribbean countries have in common.
Prerequisite: SPA 302 or permission of instructor

SPA 371
Applied Linguistics

This course provides theoretical background in linguistics and in second language acquisition. The application of linguistic theory to foreign language teaching with a focus on proficiency-based methodologies is emphasized. Required of teacher certification candidates in modern
foreign languages; open to other students with permission of the instructor. (Not for Spanish concentration)

SPA 375
Samana: An Oral and Ethnographic Study of a Community. Service and Experiential Learning in the Dominican Republic

This Interim course provides students a firsthand opportunity to study the Spanish-speaking nation of the Dominican Republic from an interdisciplinary perspective. Following three, two-hour seminars held during the fall semester preceding the January Interim, students travel to Samaná, Dominican Republic, for three weeks to study language and culture. Students may choose to receive credit in interdisciplinary studies, Spanish, Latin American studies or psychology. Students who wish to receive credit in psychology may do so by selecting projects in the discipline in consultation with a faculty member in the field. Students enrolled in this course observe and experience a cultural system distinct from their own in order to understand the complexity of this system as well as the complexity of their own cultural system. They also gain a better understanding of how human behavior influences and is influenced by perceptions of cultural "norms." Students improve skills in all four areas of second language competency: listening, speaking, reading and writing. To accomplish the aforementioned goals, students live with Dominican families in the small town of Samaná. They examine the social dynamics of this community beginning with the family unit. They observe and experience daily life in the community and contribute to the community through a variety of service-learning projects. Students also travel to other areas of the island and participate in a number of college-organized excursions. Oral interviews are conducted on a daily basis and are the primary source for students’ final projects. Prerequisite: SPA 302 or permission of instructor

SPA 380
Special Topics in Spanish Literature and Culture

This course offers special topics of interest in Spanish literature and culture. Readings, discussions, reports and examinations are in Spanish. (Latin American or European Studies).
Prerequisite: SPA 302 or permission of instructor

SPA 491
Seminar I

The seminar emphasizes critical approaches to literature leading to an individualized research project. Team taught and conducted partly in English for French and Spanish students. (Latin American or European Studies)
Prerequisite: Seniors only or permission of department chair

SPA 492
Seminar II

This seminar begins with a discussion of anthropological views of culture. Hispanic cultures are presented through their traditions, values and social structures; syncretism in Latin America also is studied. Literary texts, essays and video materials serve as the basis for class discussion; students also will develop a term project. (Latin American or European Studies)
Prerequisite: Seniors only or permission of department chair